Most common types of detergents are-
01. Anionic detergent-
Those detergents which produce anion (R-) in water or solution are called anionic detergents. Anionic detergents dissociate into a long chain anion which acts as the ‘hydrophilic’ end and the long chain carbon as the ‘hydrophobic’ end.
Examples- Alkyl benzene sulphonates (ABS), Alkyl sulphates, Alkyl benzene ether sulphonates (ABES), Sulphated fatty alcohols.
02. Cationic detergent-
Those detergents which produce cation (R+) in water or solution are called cationic detergents. These detergents have no strong detergent characteristics but have strong germicidal properties.
Examples- Quartenary ammonium compounds.
03. Non-ionic detergent-
It don’t contain any ionic molecule. They produce little foam. They possess excellent soil removal and grease emulsification characteristics.
Examples- Alkyl aryl ethylene oxide derivatives, fatty acid amides, aliphatic polyhydric alcohols esters.
04. Amphoteric detergent-
Those detergents which contain both cationic as well as anionic groups are called amphoteric detergents. They are used in the manufacture of paste, shampoos, cosmetics, emulsion, paints etc.
Examples- Lauryl sarcozinate.